Departmental legal acts of the General Prison Department of the 1880s and their role in improving the system of transferring political exiles to Siberia
Ivanov Alexander Aleksandrovich ↑
The activities of the General Prison Department of the Russian Federation to streamline the system of transferring political exiles to Siberia to the place of serving their sentence are considered, and the effectiveness and timeliness of the legal initiatives of the Office are assessed. In the early 1880s, with the rise of the left-wing radical political movement in the country, the scale of punishment by exile and hard labour increased significantly. The increase in the number of exiles required significant improvement of the entire prison system, and first of all, the order of transfer of prisoners to Siberia. In these years, on the basis of the existing legislative framework regulating the system of reference - the Charter on Reference, the Regulations on Penalties and others adopted as early as the mid-19th century, specialists of the Office developed a number of departmental legal acts designed to improve the practice of transmission. The analysis of these materials makes it possible to conclude that these documents were aimed at alleviating the situation of the prisoner on the long journey on the one hand, and at improving the transfer system, as well as the accounting of transfers on the other. As a result, it is concluded that the internal legal acts of the Office played a positive role in streamlining the legislative framework for accompanying political exiles, but the whole legal framework of the protection and penitentiary system of imperial Russia has been modernized too slowly, and the changes made have lagged behind the real needs of time. The main source for writing the article was circulars from the head of the Department and his deputies, as well as from ministers (comrades of ministers) of the relevant ministries throughout the 1880s.
About the Authors
Ivanov Alexander Aleksandrovich - Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of Political Science, History and Regional Studies, Faculty of History, Irkutsk State University (2, Chkalov st., Irkutsk, 664025, Russian Federation), e-mail: email@example.com
Ivanov A.A. Vedomstvennye pravovye akty glavnogo tyuremnogo upravleniya 1880-h godov i ih rol' v sovershenstvovanii sistemy etapirovaniya politicheskih ssyl'nyh v Sibir' [Departmental legal acts of the General Prison Department of the 1880s and their role in improving the system of transferring political exiles to Siberia]. Sibirskij yuridicheskij vestnik [Siberian Law Herald]. 2020, no 2 (89), pp. 10–15. (in Russian).
political reference and hard labour, Siberia, prison administration, forced escort of prisoners
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